IT Internal Systems- Peripherals


There are many different peripherals that can be named such as Printer or Cameras. There are also cable types such as optical and twisted pair cables.

Printers scan the documents that have been sent to it in order to which then allows the printer to print the electronic document that is then known as a hear copy of the documents.




Cameras. When a user is taking a picture on a camera, the curtain, that is placed in between the lens and the camera, allows light to be placed onto the focus point allowing the image to be more clear. The faster the shutter goes down when taking a picture, the higher the number for the shutter speed the more light is on the picture.


Fiber Optic Cables are usually made out of glass or plastic filaments that allows light to go through the cable at a quick speed. When data is being sent through the cable the data is carried through the light beams which then created binary codes for the computer to understand and read the data. Since the cables are made of glass it requires more protection c0ompared to other cables.

optical cable


Twisted Pair wires are two wires that are twisted that run the data that is being set through the cable but are parallel to each other. And is also seen to be better compared to coaxial cables.

twisted pair cable


Keyboard and mouse’s are the most well know input devices that are known by everyone that has ever used a computer or laptop. This is because it’s the two devices that help the users make commands towards the CPU and it also helps the user to communicate with the system as much as it can. They are also very easy to put into the system as there is an obvious insert area on the motherboards and can either be inserted in the two on the front or back of the motherboard but preferably the back for health and safety reasons.


IT Internal Systems- All Network Cards

All Network  Cards

LAN- This is a network card that is made generally for small areas or one area. This could be one building or more than one that is close to each other. It can connect to other LAN’s but this would be know as a Wide-Area Net work also known as WAN. Each node, another word for an individual computer, has it’s own CPU that helps the LAN to run all programs, access data and devices.

WLAN- This is another type of LAN except it uses radio waves instead of wires like LAN’s making the communication between nodes quicker.

WAN- This is a network card that is 2 LAN cards combined into one, WAN cards are connected through public networks such as telephones. It can also be through satellites or a leased line which is a telephone connection that is permanent. The largest type of WAN would be the internet at this moment of time.

MAN- This is a network that is mostly used for towns and city’s. It is larger than LAN’s but smaller than WAS’s and it gains it; connections through fiber optical cables or other digital medias available.

SAN- (Storage) Connects to servers and stores data from devices using technology such as Fiber Channel.

SAN- (System) links high-performances computers with high-speed connections in a Cluster Area Network.

CNA- (Campus)multiples of LAN’s but smaller than MAN’s. It’s usually crated for a specific area such as a University campus or a Business campus.

CAN- (Cluster)

PAN- Personal Area Network. This is a network made for a an individual and specific devices such as PDA’s, mobiles and computers. PAN can be wired or wireless. Wired PAN need to have a USB or FireWire to link to whereas a wireless PAN uses Bluetooth or using infrared connections, this is a communication used for mobile phones or a desk computer or even a printer. It usually overs an area if less that 10 meters or around 30 feet

DAN- Desk Area Network. This is based around ATM’s. Connections based through peripherals and CPU’s is the main memory that is made or ‘achieved’ through ATM cells that go through switch fabrics.

VAN- - Value-Added Network. This is a private network that is hired or Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). It also helos with areas such as message encryption and secure emails. Its a service that business partners can share basic data.

IT Internal Systems- Network and Graphic Cards

Purpose and Functions

Network Cards

This is a card that allows you to access specific networks, the method of how it gains the network depends on what network it’s suppose to access. There are 2 types of network cards:

Wireless network cards- This is when the network card looks for a network through a wireless connection.

Ethernet network cards- This is the same as Wireless network cards except it’s with a Ethernet connection.

Ethernet network cards are mostly found and used in motherboards as it connects to the router or hub and then connects to the internet.

Network cards are also used to transfer data on one computer to another by it being an interface between the computer and cable. Network cards also change the data that come from cables into bytes so the CPU of the motherboard can read it correctly.


Ethernet NC                  Wireless NC

Graphic Cards

When loading a game, the CPU can only take as much information at once, this is when the graphics card then takes this information so that the CPU can then gain more information as a graphics card, also known as a GPU, has a larger storage space compared to the CPU, this help to load programs for games, pictures etc.

PC convert the data that it’s been given into electronic signals that are then sent to the monitor. The monitor then takes these electronic signals and turn them into games and images that are clear. It’s fast enough to handle more that one type of media at once and for them to load properly.


IT Internal Systems- Power Supply, Fan and Heat Sink

Purpose and Functions:

Power Supply

This provided all the voltages needed for the computer in order for it to function properly. It allows the computer to take an alternating current (AC) from the household the computer is in and change it into a direct current (DC) which is the voltage a computer needs. You can usually see the power supply as it hold the fan. The functioning happens when the AC changes into DC which activated the power supply to start.

power supply

Fan and Heat Sink

Fans are needed in order for the computers CPU to not get too overheated to the point it struggles to perform its actions. Heat sinkers move the heat into another direction so that the parts in the computer can work properly and won’t break to the point it cannot be fixed. They both do a thermal check  that helps to maintain the heat that the CPU and the computer feel to make sure the computer works well.

Fan        heat sink

                  Fan                                      Heat Sink

IT Internal Systems- USB, ROM, RAM, DRAM, SRAM

Purpose and Functions:

USB Port allows you to save documents and software’s compared to RAM as  RAM can easily if there’s no power that RAM can run on then hard disks such as USB ports allow the items to be saved as well as be portable and placed into other computers. It functions as soon as the USB is placed in the side area where the USB port is held. USB ports help to transfer files and medias quickly rather than having to use communication websites such as Hotmail or another email services.

USB Port


This stands for Read Only Memory. Rom’s were created by IC chips, IC chips make it easier to have larger circuits as well as helping with the space ad energy use etc. this helps to start up the computer. BIOS tells the CPU to access hard drives, videos and usual inputs such as keyboards and mouse’s, this is how ROM is started up. The memory on a ROM is kept even when the computer is turned off.. It cannot be changed through programs or by the user but it keeps or stores the instructions of hoe th=o start the computer when it’s turned on.


RAM is used to store temporary programs or data that are being used on a computer.  This allows the processer to access each program and data quickly. RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It functions when the computer is turned on as it runs all the programs ready to be opened but when turned off, the RAM card stops running. The operating system, applications and graphics user interface (GUI) is all stored onto the RAM.



This is a quicker type of RAM that is used for personal computers or workstations. It also needs refreshing every millisecond through storage cells. Stands for Dynamic Random Access Memory. It functions when the chip is slotted into its area. The same place where a RAM would be slotted.



It quicker than RAM as it doesn’t need to be refreshed. Stands for Static Random Access Memory.  It functions when the chip is slotted into its area. The same place where a RAM would be slotted.



IT Internal Systems- SATA, IDE, SSCI, SSD, USB, FireWire,

Purpose and Functions

4 Main hard drives


Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. SATAs function is to transfer data from components such as a CPU ,  CD-ROM and RAM to the motherboard. SATA replaced IDE hard drives, also known as PATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment) as it has a larger storage, inexpensive, supports hot plugging (such as a USB), quicker transfer of data.


Integrated Drive Electronics. IDE’s connect to CD drives and Hard drives of a motherboard, it then transfers the data and instructions between both devices. It has a Maximum compatibility but doesn’t have a lot of support when it comes to new technology as it doesn’t support hot-plugging hard drives.

IDE was created in 1986 making it fairly old, showing the reason for why it can’t support new technology whereas SATA was created in 2003 making it more continent as it also allows hot-plugging.



Small Computer System Interface. SCSI disks are seen to be similar to IDE had drives. SCSI spins at a quicker rate compared to both IDE and SATA as these both spin around 7,200 while SCSI spins at 10,000- 15,000. SCSI need to be controlled or it could lead to a fast breakdown also, it functions the line (interface) between the drives ad the computers motherboard.


Solid State Drive. Compared to the other hard drives. SSD is a component that needs to be moved as SSD uses semiconductors, as there’s no disk that need spinning, this means that it’s more faster as well as having a lower chance of breaking. But, compared to the other hard disks, it’s more expensive.

Another connection of a hard drive to a computer would be:


This is the most common as it’s simple as you plug it in the USB port. And as soon as the USB is plugged in, the user is able to read and save files immediately.


This is like a USB except it’s more faster, making it more popular as it is faster especially when transferring videos.

IT Internal Systems


Purpose and Functions:


To provide connections between all computer parts. However, it doesn’t store any information. Motherboards cannot function without at CPU (Central Processing Unit) or a RAM card (Random Access Memory).



This is a chip that starts up the programs and reads instructions as well as putting out data. Without this chip, the motherboards wouldn’t work. It starts to function as soon as the ‘on’ button on the motherboard is pressed from by the user.



It allows certain actions to perform as soon as the computer is turned on and runs the first stages of starting up the computer. It also makes sure that the system is correct with the memory that has been loaded. It could also help with the security of the computer. It’s the first software that takes control of the computer. BIOS stands for Basic Input/output System. When loading, the BIOS takes a POST test, this stands for Power On Self Test, this makes sure that the computer meets all it’s requirements, if the test fails then it beeps to indicate the fault of the computer.